2021年5月9日日曜日

Diesel Train Development History 13  Development and Development of Express Diesel Trains Kiha 28/58 Episode 1



Everyone, I would like to talk about the history of diesel railcar development today.
This time, I would like to take up the Kiha 28/58 type, which is a representative of the express type during the JNR era.
The liquid diesel railcar, which started with Kiha 44500, has continued to develop as a smokeless ace in non-electrified sections.
Although the DMH17 series engine has been improved to 180PS, it is undeniable that it is powerless, and there was a problem that the speed would drop extremely in the slope section, and that problem is also equipped with two DMH17 series engines. This made it possible to achieve a provisional solution.
After that, the Kiha 55, which applied the lightweight structure method found in 10 series passenger cars, was born, and it was an era when diesel cars were used for full-scale honor trains.
The Kiha 55 was well received, but since the Kiha 55 was planned for semi-express trains, it was necessary to create a vehicle with even better habitability in order to replace the conventional passenger car express, and this was how it was born. Was a group called express trains, which is represented by Kiha 58.
The characteristics of the Kiha 58 series diesel railcars are that the width of the car body has expanded to 2900 mm, which makes the inside of the car wider, and that it has succeeded in improving quietness by installing the DMH17H engine adopted in the limited express type (floating). The floor structure was also successful.

Classification of Kiha 28/58 series diesel railcars

Generally, it tends to be grouped together with Kiha 58 series, but it can be roughly divided into the following categories.

        Kiha 27, 56, Kilo 27 ... Kiha 58 series, which was active in Hokkaido, has double-glazed windows, and the windows are a little smaller.
        Kiha 57 ・ Kilo 57 ・ ・ ・ ・ ・ ・ Vehicles for passing through the Apt section of the Shin-Etsu Line
        For the general public Kiha 28 Kiha 58 km 28 km 58 ... Generally speaking, the Kiha 58 series refers to this series.

Of course, if you divide it into small pieces, there are individual number divisions such as design changes depending on the year of manufacture, but we will omit that part.

First developed for Hokkaido

Diesel Train Development History 13 Development and Development of Express


Kiha 56 type railcar

As the type of diesel railcar shows, it was first developed for Hokkaido, and was equipped with cold and snow resistant equipment similar to Kiha22.
The next development was the Kiha 57 / Km27 diesel railcar, which was developed for passing through the Apt section of the Shin-Etsu Line.
The feature of this railcar was that it adopted an air spring even though it was an express railcar.
This was designed to prevent the springs from sinking during a passenger ride and the basic braking device and underfloor equipment from coming into contact with the rack rails, and the disc brake system was adopted for the first time as an express railcar.
Based on the DT27 / TR67 used in the Kiha 81, the design was changed to a disc brake.
History of diesel railcar development 13 Development and development of express


trains Kiha 28 ・ 58 Episode 1_a0091267_00145331.jpg

Kiha 57 type railcar

The disc brakes for pneumatic cars are not the method of sandwiching discs as seen in Saha cars of trains, but the method of pressing the discs provided on the back side of the wheels (wheel disc method), and it seems that it was unpopular from the standpoint of maintenance. , It seems that the braking performance was good, and it was also adopted in the subsequent 80 series pneumatic cars (group including Kiha82).
Diesel Train Development History 13 Development and Development of Express 

 DT31 type dolly adopted for Kiha 57 series


As an aside, the Kiha 81 has since replaced the dolly with the same dolly as the Kiha 82 series, and the conventional dolly has been replaced with the Kiha 28 and Kilo 26.
Except for the Kiha 57 series, the same metal spring bogies DT22A, DT22C (power bogie), and TR51A as the Kiha 55 late model were adopted.
History of Diesel Train Development 13 Development an

d Development of Express
DT22 type dolly


Face of JNR express train Kiha 28/58

History of diesel railcar development 13 Development and development of express trains Kiha 28/58 Episode 1 _a0091267_00145386.jpg
In addition, the Kiha 28/58 was born as a vehicle for other express trains.
Unlike trains, diesel cars tend to require cost reductions, and the back of the seats of ordinary cars (second-class cars at that time) was covered with moquette on trains, but on Kiha 82, it becomes a decorative board or a horizontal pulling curtain, In the diesel train, it was omitted, and there was a part that became a roll-up curtain and was omitted considerably.
Looking at the Kiha 58 series, while the 153 series trains of the same period adopted panoramic windows, they were flat glass and the skirt was omitted.
The most noticeable difference was the green car (business class at that time), and the Salo 152, which debuted for express trains, had a lighting cover, while the Kilo 28 (including Kilo 58) had a descending window. Although it was adopted, I got the impression that the lighting was downgraded, such as the cover being omitted.
Also, as mentioned above, the 153 series was the air spring DT24 / TR59, but the Kiha 58 series uses the coil spring standard diesel railcar DT22 / TR51, making it a vehicle that is conscious of cost reduction as a whole. It was.

All images are quoted from wikipedia

Continue.




2021年4月28日水曜日

History of diesel railcar development 12 Development of limited express diesel railcars Focusing on the story of Kiha82.

The story at the time of the birth of Kiha 81


The Kiha 81 was able to achieve the goal of running a limited express train in a local non-electrified section, but as it tried to be the centerpiece of the ARC 2nd meeting, the running period became shorter as a result, and the initial stage. It can be said that the cause was that the failure could not be completed.


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If you refer to the December issue of the Railway Pictorial at that time, the design started around the end of 1959 in an attempt to make it the centerpiece of the ARC 2nd Conference, and it was completed in September 1960.
In the case of railroad cars, it takes about half a year at the earliest to manufacture. To be honest, I think it was a pretty tight schedule.
http://jnrera3.webcrow.jp/nenpyou/shouwa_JNR/s_35_5.html

 
Actually, at the 2nd ARC, it was said that it was operated as a special train to Nikko as a special train, but this was also generally popular, and the representatives of the Philippines said that they would definitely like to buy it, the December issue of Railway Pictorial. Is written in.

In addition, as a spillover story about Kiha 81, it is stated that a test run for receipt was carried out between Omiya and Koyama on September 15, 1960, and a location was taken on the Kawagoe Line from the afternoon.
Furthermore, on September 18th, a location was held, which was a substantial virgin operation of the Hatsukari with many extras.
I will quote a part from the article of Railway Pictorial at that time.

    As a replacement for the current "Hatsukari", there are 2 9-car trains, 2 Kiha 81 2 cars, 4 Kiha 80 cars, 1 Kiha 80 1 car, and 1 Kilo 80 spare car, for a total of 26 cars. Completion, the official test run of the first train was carried out between Omiya Ichikoyama in early autumn on September 15. As I mentioned earlier, the production process of this car was very tight, but especially in the first formation, it was a really busy schedule with various schedules even after completion. I was worried that the time to carefully consider it would be too short for a car like this. From the day of the official test run, it was well received for its excellent performance and excellent ride quality.
    After the official test run, in the afternoon, there was already a talk on the Kawagoe line. The movie "Diesel Limited Express" is a record of the life of the main character "Hatsukari", which describes the transition from the time of Kiha's Yoran, which was said to be a gasoline car in the old days, to today's limited express diesel trains. In the second half, Iwanami Productions produced the total heavenly color, planning, Japanese National Railways, and production of the route from Ueno to Aomori.

At the location of the Kawagoe Line, a Caboose (Yo) was attached in front of the leading car, and the front of the driver's cab was photographed. ... and so on.



When I first saw the actual commercial operation, on December 17, it was found that the reversing machine of some vehicles was damaged and the operation was suspended. There is a description that it was done.
As a matter of course, from the next day, he returned to towing the steam locomotive again.


Initially, the diamond will remain the same as the steam locomotive, but on December 10, 1960, the diamond will remain the steam locomotive and will be replaced by the diesel train limited express.
After that, it is said that it will be shortened by about 45 minutes by the timetable revision in March 1958.
However, I haven't found it as a document, but I will post it after checking the document again, such as the initial failure of the hook, so please wait for a while.

In addition, it is written in the internal magazine of the Japanese National Railways that there was an initial failure but there was no essential problem, but in reality it seems that there were many driving accidents such as taking care of the steam locomotive due to a smoke accident. I would like to search for materials in that area again.

Early completion and thorough running
In October 1958, with the revision of the blank schedule, limited express trains were set up in various places, and the operating sections were as follows.
Hakodate-Asahikawa (Limited Express Ozora) (10 cars between Hakodate and Sapporo, then 6 cars)
Ueno-Akita (Limited Express Tsubasa)
Osaka-Aomori / Ueno (Limited Express Shiratori) 12 cars between Osaka and Naoetsu, then split and 6 cars to Ueno
Kyoto-Kumamoto / Miyazaki (Limited Express Kamome) 12 cars between Kyoto and Moji, then split and 6 cars to Miyazaki (It seems that it was changed at the time of planning)
Kyoto-Matsue (Limited Express Yakumo)
Kyoto-Hakata (Limited Express Matsukaze)
Osaka-Hiroshima (Limited Express Peace)
History of diesel railcar development 12 Development of limited express diesel railcars _a0091267_23461888.jpg Focusing on the story of Kiha82
From the revision in October 1958
History of diesel railcar development 12 Development of limited express diesel railcars _a0091267_23425766.jpg Focusing on the story of Kiha82
I would like to find out why Kyoto-Kumamoto / Miyazaki became Nagasaki / Sasebo in the actual amendment.
 

From the beginning, the expansion vehicle was considered to be split and merged, so the front of the vehicle became a penetration type.
Regarding the characteristics of the vehicle, if you refer to the materials at that time, you can see the following description.

    The main feature is the shape of the leading car mentioned above, and the control relationship of the power generation set is complicated so that it is convenient for splitting and merging. A breaker is installed in each car so that the power generation set can be turned on while the power generation set is in operation so that the lamp of each car does not turn off at the split.
    The power generation set is installed under the floor, and at the rear of the driver's cab, there is an equipment room with radiators, engine preheaters, fuel tanks, water sinks, etc. on both sides of the central passage.
    The shop was closed at Kiha 82. Since the radiator was a little inadequate due to "Hatsukari", we increased it and changed it to idle operation without stopping the engine when the temperature of the engine cooling water became high, and added a marking device for this. ..
    For each car connection holo, the inside and outside double type of "Hatsukari" was abolished and the outside holo was abolished. The Kiha80 seat radio is also abolished. Disc brakes are used on the dolly to further shorten the braking distance compared to "Hatsukari", and each underfloor equipment is equipped with cold-resistant equipment similar to "Hatsukari", but in warm regions going from Osaka to Kyushu. The lower engine odor, radiator odor, whistle shirt device, snowplow, etc. are not attached to the ones for the direction.
    The formation of this limited express train was completed from July to August, and 78 cars will be assigned to Mukomachi Ward, 34 cars to Oku Ward, and 15 cars to Goryokaku Ward. ..

Quoted from the June 1958 issue of Transportation Technology

It was decided to be completed as Kiha 82, which will be the representative face of the diesel train limited express after that.
These vehicles were revised in October, but were completed in sequence from July to August.

Therefore, it seems that a thorough run was carried out with the new 80 series car led by Kiha82.
It seems that it made a round trip from Osaka to Aomori along the actual timetable, but it is natural that some engines stopped when returning to the ward, and it is said that it was repaired all night to prepare for the next day's test. I will.

I would like to write the continuation again.

Continue

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Strengthening of transportation capacity and JNR Episode 4 The activity of trains seen in Shonan trains

 Two-window 80 series trains that had a great impact on post-war railroad cars
In addition to having an impact on private railways, the design of the 157 series train is said to be an advanced type.

In March 1950, operation by the 80 series train started between Tokyo and Numazu. Until now, when it comes to trains, short-distance transportation has overturned common sense. The orange and green colors that are still in use today were greeted with surprise to those who had only seen brown or black. It is said that it was corrected later because it was orange with a strong reddish color at the beginning.
Also, the reason for expressing the color of mandarin oranges in the Shonan region is that it was added later, and it seems that it was originally chosen because it was a bright color.
The original plan for this train is to operate a 15-car train +1 luggage cars a maximum of 16-car trains of  every 60 minutes between Tokyo and Numazu, and every 30 minutes to Odawara (15 minutes during rush hours). It seems that orders for vehicles were planned along with this, but the number of orders was reduced due to the occasional Dodge whirlwind (this is what we called the shrinking economy of the Dodge Line).
In the end, the number of orders was significantly reduced to 73 cars, but it was decided to lay the foundation for the high-speed trains that followed.
The appearance of this train served as a way to raise expectations for the future in the postwar tide.
In particular, the streamlined double-glazed window adopted from the additional car in 1951 has a structure with a dogleg shape in the center, and together with the so-called Kintaro paint of the leading car, it is predominant in the world.
After that, this style also influenced many private railways, and each company also affected diesel railcars that were born at the same time as non-penetrating, double-windowed Shonan-shaped sub-stream cars were born nationwide. ..

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2021年4月23日金曜日

History of diesel railcar development 11 Development of limited express railcars.

Today, I would like to talk about the development of limited express railcars as a history of railcar development.

Japan's first limited express railcar was born in 1960, and the time from design to production was short. This will be explained later, but it will be exhibited at the Asian Railway Leaders' Conference (ARC). It was planned as a thing.
It's a little off the topic of diesel railcars, but I would like to talk a little about the "Asian Railway Leaders' Meeting".

What is "Asian Railway Leaders' Meeting"?


It is said that this conference started with the proposal of President Togawa, and the first meeting was held in May 1958.
The purpose is to "invite railway leaders from Asian countries to Japan, introduce the breakthroughs of the Japanese National Railways, and solidify a pledge to achieve a common purpose through mutual friendship and alliances," the July 1958 issue. Although it is written in the transportation technology of, the point is to appeal the reconstruction of the Japanese National Railways and connect it to the export of vehicles, and the Japanese National Railways at that time also did what the Ministry of Transport should originally plan. It was an era like the Japanese National Railways = Ministry of Railways, a separate organization from the Ministry of Transport. (To be more precise, it is more accurate to say that only the part related to railways was extracted from the Ministry of Railways before the war).
The first ARC meeting seems to have ended successfully, and two years later, the second ARC meeting was held again in Japan for about a week from October 14th to 20th, 1960. At this time, 70 vehicles of the newly established "Railway Technical Research Institute" (currently Railway Technical Research Institute) were collected, and the first time was mainly a tour of the facility. It seems that the exhibition was centered on vehicles.

Is the purpose of developing limited express railcars to sell to Asia?
At the second ARC, 157 series trains, rail buses (Kiha 02), new passenger cars, freight cars, etc., which debuted in the previous year mainly on the exhibition of vehicles
It seems that it was on display.

Kiha 81 designed in a hurry


Although the Kiha 81 was planned from 1959, it seems that the schedule was quite strict in order to coincide with the start of operation in December after the exhibition at ARC.
From the time of design, it was worried that the DMH17 series engine would be powerless, so it was the Kiha 60 series that was being developed in parallel.
Diesel train development history 11 Development of limited express diesel railcars


 By changing the design of the DMH17 series engine to a horizontal type, we were able to eliminate the inspection lid inside the car, but uneven lubrication and exhaust system problems frequently occur, causing many fire accidents. It was ridiculed as "Hatsukari, disappointment, only accidents", but on the other hand, there were also ambitious efforts as a frontier of limited express railcars.
One of them was the adoption of the bonnet.
The 151 series design that appeared in 1958 was well received, and there were voices requesting that the Tohoku railcar limited express also introduce a similar style.
However, the Tohoku Main Line at that time had many tablet-type sections, the driver's cab was a little lower to make it convenient for giving and receiving tablets, and the entire bonnet was wider than the 151 series because the engine was placed horizontally. The length has become shorter.
The circumstances in that area are also described in Transportation Technology in November 1960, so I would like to quote a little.

Let me give you a new point about this diesel limited express.
1. The shape of the front of the head is similar to that of "Kodama", but the driver's cab is slightly lower so that it is convenient to handle the tablet in the single track section and the signal is easy to see.
A diesel generator (I25kVA AC 440V) as a power source is contained in the front bonnet, and the inside can be inspected by opening the top lid like a car. The same generator is also hung under the floor of the dining car, and all three generators can be operated from the driver's cab.
2. The exterior and interior of the car body are almost the same as "Kodama" and the color is the same as "Kodama", but the polyester veneer (Kodama is a melamine veneer) is used for the lining of the car body, and the floor is Kodama. The main difference is that it has a floating floor structure and the entire guest room is supported by a polyurethane home. (For comparison, some 151 series adopted the conventional fixed floor, so it seems that the description was like this, but I think this is an error of the author)

History of diesel railcar development 11 Development of limited express 

"Hatsukari" type Kiha 81 that lost trust due to frequent driving accidents

When you start driving, many of them are powerless, and many of them stop the engine due to problems caused by high-speed / long-distance driving and uneven lubrication, which often causes a fire accident. Although the results will be disappointing, improvements will be made, and from the revision in October 1958, the improved Kiha 82 will be born.
Regarding Kiha 82, I will write a separate chapter, but it is said that a thorough test run was carried out and the operation according to the revised timetable was carried out every day, and the initial failure was thoroughly identified. ..
As a result, such a method worked well, and the Kiha 82 will want the name as a famous car, but I would like to talk about that separately.

Continue 


2021年4月21日水曜日

Increased transportation capacity and JNR Episode 3 Improvement of freight transportation

Waki ​​1000 brake van, Waki ​​100 type, active as an express service for small-lot transportation until container transportation starts

Image wikipedia


From 1950, the service for freight transportation has also been improved, and armpit trains dedicated to small-lot freight transportation have been set up between Shiodome and Umeda and between Suita and Monji, which has significantly increased from 65 hours to 43 hours between Shiodome and Monji. It was improved to.
The motive for the improvement was that freight transportation decreased due to the shrinking economy due to the Dodge Line, and that truck transportation and ship transportation were restored and services were forced to improve.
After that, demand increased due to the special demand of Korea, but after the peak, the idle of freight cars became conspicuous, so JNR started to express small cargo from September 1952 in order to improve services and make effective use of freight cars. For transportation.
A new "express small-lot handling" was established, and a special freight car with the letters "express flight" was used for the freight car. This will continue to play an active role as a flower-shaped train until container transportation begins in earnest.
This part-time transportation was further expanded in the following 28 years, and the use of automobiles was used to consolidate small-lot cargo in cities to specific stations and to act on behalf of automobiles in rural areas. There is a track record that the National Railways Automobile Bureau carried out freight car agency transportation.

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2021年4月18日日曜日

Diesel railcar development history 10 Prototype high-power diesel railcar Kiha 60 type.

DMF31 series engine installed in Kiha 60

After the war, diesel railcar engines were advanced in the form of improvements to the DMH17 engine.
It seems that there was also an engine called DMH17SB that connected a supercharger to the DMH17 engine and pulled it out to 250PS and used it for DC2 of Ugo Kotsu for locomotives, or attached a supercharger and an intercooler to raise the output to 300PS , This is also a locomotive engine, and has a track record of being used in the Kushiro Rinko Railway D501 and the Iwate Development Railway DD43.
JNR is the only locomotive that has adopted the DMH17 series engine (DD11 is also a locomotive originally developed for the Hakuho Line, and together with Kiha 10000 (later Kiha 01), revive the postwar route. At that time, the transportation capacity was that much, so I wonder if the line had already completed its mission as a railway.
Returning to the story of the DMH17 series engine, the Japanese National Railways uses the DMH17S for generators.
It seems that it was installed for power generation when the secondary car (1965) of the simple power supply car (Maya 20) of the 20 series passenger car was manufactured.
A power generation set was installed in the DMF31 series engine.
So, let's talk about the DMF31 series engine, which is the main character of this time. If the origin is corrected, the Ministry of Railways, Niigata Engineering Co., Ltd. (currently Niigata Power Systems Co., Ltd.) Ikegai Corp. , Ikegai Diesel Co., Ltd.) It is a general term for the engines manufactured by Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., and it is written that the design was changed significantly after the war, and there is an opinion that it is not appropriate to use the same series. The purpose here is not to have such a discussion.
At least, the DMF31 engine (vertical engine here) that was born after the war was newly designed based on the prewar DMF31 series (just for convenience), and the horizontal version was the DMF31H engine. (H is an acronym for Horizontal) The horizontal engine, like the DMH17H used for "Hatsukari," did not lubricate well and was prone to trouble.
Of course, it is said that the prewar Kiha 43000 had similar problems.
And the one that was prototyped with this DMH31H engine was the Kiha 60 series diesel railcar (Kiha 602 cars and Kilo 60).


DMF31H engine (top) and liquid transmission



Background of the prototype of Kiha 60

After the war, after a lot of trial and error, when the liquid type (called hydraulic type at that time) diesel railcars achieved a certain result, the demand for the placement of the diesel railcars increased in order to improve the management of the local local lines.
It would have been good if it was only a flat section, but as the number of lines including slopes increased, the slow speed became a problem.
On the Yanagase line of the former Hokuriku main line, it seems that the timetable was always disturbed because it could not run according to the timetable, probably because it was around Kiha 17 series at the beginning.
So, there was a funny story that when I introduced a two-engine car, I arrived too early this time.
Well, that's why two-engine cars were also added, but as the number of engines increased, it naturally took time to maintain, so there was an urgent need to develop a high-power engine.

Features of Kiha 60


For that purpose, the Kiha 60 is an ambitious one with a DMF31 engine placed horizontally and an output of 400PS (a three-speed transmission with a supercharger), according to a magazine for the department called Transportation Technology at that time. Is written as follows.
It's a long time, but I will quote the full text.
Transportation Technology March 1960

    These are the Kiha 60 type (2 cars) and the Kilo 60 type (1 car), which were completed on January 29th.
    The appearance and interior of the vehicle seem to be not much different from the conventional Kiha 55 / Kilo 25, and these three prototypes have the following features. It has a horizontal 6-cylinder 400PS engine under the floor, and the speed stage can be switched to 3 stages (including 2 stages directly connected) by a liquid transmission or liquid joint, and the drive is transmitted to the 2 axes of the bogie. It has a structure. In addition to using static-hydraulic drive system automatic control for the engine cooling system, it was the first diesel railcar to use disc brakes.
    The three cars prototyped for the purpose of vehicle development had different structures. Honeycomb board is used for the floor board with the same floating floor structure as the two cars (Kodama), and Kilo has tried thorough soundproofing as a fixed window, and there is also an idea to conduct a development test of a cooling device using the exhaust heat of the engine. is there. In addition, the bogie is a lightweight, high-speed bogie with air springs. In addition to the design that can reach up to 135km / h, the door of the doorway is a new type that does not require a door pocket and is an external suspension type, but this is a new type semi-automatic opening and closing type door that the side is completely flat when closed. This prototype car is scheduled to be tested on the Gotemba Line and Chuo Main Line for the time being, but it will also provide valuable data to the Tohoku Limited Express (Hatsukari) that will appear this fall.

   

    A fan is installed in the room of 60 km, but there is no air conditioner.


The main new technologies adopted in Kiha 60 are


        2-axis drive of power bogie ・ ・ ・ Practical use with Kiha 65 and Kiha 180
        Disc brake ... After that, 80 series pneumatic car (used in mass-produced cars after Kiha 82 and Kiha 57)

The transmission was a charge / drain type transmission that was later adopted in DD51, etc., and the plug door system was also adopted in the 451 series and 471 series of AC / DC trains.
Also, in this article, it is written as a fixed window, but it seems that it was such a description because it is a specification of a double window and I was thinking about installing a cooling device in the future.

Trial result of Kiha 60

According to the materials at that time, on the Gotemba Line, the August 1960 special issue of Transportation Technology states as follows.

    As a result of the test on the Gotemba Line, it was confirmed that the driving performance, noise and vibration prevention effect, strength of the power transmission device, riding comfort, etc. all meet the intended goals.

However, it vibrates in other materials. in particular. There is also a record that the shift shock was considerable, so it seems that this area needs to be investigated a little more.
Actually, if there is no problem, it will not be replaced by the DMH17 institution, so it is speculated that it may have been expressed like this without saying that it was really useless internally.

The image is taken from an article on Transportation Technology, 1960.

Continue

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Increased transportation capacity and Japanese National Railways Episode 2 Japan after the peace treaty

Increased transportation capacity and JNR Episode 2 Peace ...

After winning the peace, Japan became an independent country internationally, but the exhaustion caused by the 10-year war continued and the lives of the people were not yet rich.
However, in the 30's of the Showa era, the era of postwar reconstruction gradually ended, and after the Shinbu economy from 1954 (1954) and the period called the Nabebottom recession on the way, from 1958 (Showa 33) again. In 1960, the Ikeda Cabinet was organized in place of the Kishi Cabinet, which resigned in the form of being responsible for the revision of the Security Treaty due to the booming economy called the Iwato economy. The economy has become more active with the aim of aiming for a richer life.
Thanks to such a booming economy, the volume of rail transportation will increase steadily, but on the other hand, the aging of facilities that were overworked during the war has become noticeable, especially in terms of transportation capacity. The security equipment could not keep up.
Especially in order to increase the transportation capacity, it was necessary to give top priority to improving the orbit.
Regarding tracks, heavy rails have been promoted since 1952.
Specifically, in the section where the D50 / D51 steam locomotives enter and the line section where the annual passing tons are 5 million tons or more, the 30 kg rail becomes the 37 kg rail, and the line sections such as C57, C62, D52, etc. enter. In addition, in the section with more than 10 million tons of passing tons, the construction to replace the 37 kg rail with a 50 kg rail has started in a 9-year plan. (There is a difference in cloudiness considering that many routes are currently 50 kg rails, but at that time, 30 kg rails etc. were quite common.)
At the same time, the modernization of track maintenance work has been promoted, and machines such as multiple tie tampers and ballast cleaners have been introduced. As a result, the songs of the track maintenance wards, which were traditionally sung in each track maintenance ward, gradually disappeared.
In addition, due to lack of wood, we plan to produce reinforced concrete sleepers, and concrete sleepers have been used since 1952.
On the other hand, as part of the postwar reconstruction, local governments and others requested the development of a station square.
Since the station building was originally owned by the railway, it was supposed to be maintained by the railway company, but the reality is that it is difficult to handle it, and part or all of the restoration and construction costs of the station building will be borne by the local community. The concept of "People's Station" was born, in which commercial facilities such as shops and cafeterias were set up in the station building instead of being asked to do so.
Based on this policy, applications were submitted in various places starting from Toyohashi Station in 1948 (which is said to be the first popular station after the war), but problems surfaced due to the contract method, etc., and in 1954. Has established various standards for the facilities and operation of Toyohashi Station.
Furthermore, in 1957, in order to make drastic improvements, the first five-year plan was formulated with a focus on increasing transportation capacity, and the following policies were decided.
(1) Renew aging facilities to improve the soundness of assets and ensure transportation safety.
(2) Break down the current transportation impasse and alleviate unreasonable transportation, and strengthen the transportation capacity like him to meet the increasing transportation demand.
(3) Promotion of transportation system, power, and equipment modernization to improve services and reduce costs
It was.

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